P U B L I C A T I O N S

P E E R - R E V I E W E D J O U R N A L A R T I C L E S

Avatar Customization Orientation and Undergraduate-Course Outcomes: Actual-self avatars are better than ideal-self and future-self avatars.

  1. Ratan, R., Klein, M., Ucha, C., & Cherchiglia, L. (2022). Avatar Customization Orientation and Undergraduate-Course Outcomes: Actual-self avatars are better than ideal-self and future-self avatars. Computers & Education, 191, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2022.104643

Jogging in Your Avatar's Footsteps: The effects of avatar customization and control intuitiveness.

  1. Rheu, M. M., Ratan, R., Sah, Y. J., Cherchiglia, L., & Day, T. (2022). Jogging in Your Avatar's Footsteps: The effects of avatar customization and control intuitiveness. Frontiers in Virtual Reality. https://doi.org/10.3389/frvir.2022.873689

How do social presence and active learning in synchronous and asynchronous online classes relate to students’ perceived course gains?

  1. Ratan, R., Ucha, C., Lei, Y., Lim, C., Triwibowo, W., Yelon, S., Sheahan, A., Lamb, B., Deni, D., & Chen, V. H. H. (2022). How do social presence and active learning in synchronous and asynchronous online classes relate to students’ perceived course gains?. Computers & Education, 191, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2022.104621


User-Avatar Bond: Risk and Opportunities in Gaming and Beyond.

  1. Stavropoulos, V., Ratan, R., & Lee, K.M. (2022). Editorial: User-Avatar Bond: Risk and Opportunities in Gaming and Beyond. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.923146


Balancing learning and enjoyment in serious games: Kerbal Space Program and the communication mediation model.

  1. Rosenthal, S. & Ratan, R. (2022). Balancing learning and enjoyment in serious games: Kerbal Space Program and the communication mediation model. Computers & Education, Article 104480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2022.104480


Gender, Gaming Motives, and Genre: Comparing Singaporean, German, and American Players.

  1. Ratan, R., Chen, V.H.H., De Grove, F., Breuer, J., Quandt, T. & Williams, R. (2022). Gender, Gaming Motives, and Genre: Comparing Singaporean, German, and American Players. IEEE Transactions on Games, 14(3), p. 456-465. https://doi.org/10.1109/TG.2021.3116077


Beyond Genre: Classifying Virtual Reality Experiences.

  1. Foxman, M., Beyea, D., Leith, A. P., Ratan, R. A., Chen, V. H. H., & Klebig, B. (2022). Beyond Genre: Classifying Virtual Reality Experiences. IEEE Transactions on Games, 14(3), p. 466-477. https://doi.org/10.1109/TG.2021.3119521


Facial Appearance Dissatisfaction Explains Differences in Zoom Fatigue. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.

  1. Ratan, R., Miller, D.B., Bailension, J.N., (2021). Facial Appearance Dissatisfaction Explains Differences in Zoom Fatigue. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2021.0112


Avatar-User Bond as Meta-Cognitive Experience: Explicating Identification and Embodiment as Cognitive Fluency.

  1. Sah, Y.J., Rheu, M., Ratan, R., (2021). Avatar-User Bond as Meta-Cognitive Experience: Explicating Identification and Embodiment as Cognitive Fluency. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.695358


Reality Stems From Modality: Stereotype Threat Effects of a STEM Game in Augmented and Virtual Reality.

  1. Ratan, R., Boumis, J.K., Kuang, S., Gambino, A., Huang, K-T. (2021). Reality Stems From Modality: Stereotype Threat Effects of a STEM Game in Augmented and Virtual Reality. Frontiers in Virtual Reality, 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/frvir.2021.636643


The (digital) medium of mobility is the message: Examining the influence of e-scooter mobile app perceptions on e-scooter use intent.

  1. Ratan, R., Earle, K., Rosenthal, S., Chen, V. H. H., Gambino, A., Goggin, G., Stevens, H., Li, B., & Lee, K. M. (2021). The (digital) medium of mobility is the message: Examining the influence of e-scooter mobile app perceptions on e-scooter use intent. Computers in Human Behavior Reports. doi.org/10.1016/j.chbr.2021.100076


Virtual Game Changers: how avatars and virtual coaches influence exergame outcomes through enactive and vicarious learning.

  1. Li, B., Ratan, R., Lwin, M.O. (2021). Virtual Game Changers: how avatars and virtual coaches influence exergame outcomes through enactive and vicarious learning. Behaviour & Information Technology. doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2021.1884290


Men Do Not Rule the World of Tanks: Negating the Gender-Performance Gap in a Spatial-Action Game by Controlling for Time Played.

  1. Ratan, R., Shen, C., Williams, D., (2020). Men Do Not Rule the World of Tanks: Negating the Gender-Performance Gap in a Spatial-Action Game by Controlling for Time Played. American Behavioral Scientist 64(7), 1031 – 1043.


Stereotype Threat in a Video Game Context and Its Influence on Perceptions of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM): Avatar-Induced Active Self-Concept as a Possible Mitigator.

  1. Fordham, J., Ratan, R., Huang, K.T., Zhou, W., & Silva., K., (2020). Stereotype Threat in a Video Game Context and Its Influence on Perceptions of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM): Avatar-Induced Active Self-Concept as a Possible Mitigator. American Behavioral Scientist.


Viral Vitriol: Predictors and Contagion of Online Toxicity in World of Tanks.

  1. Shen, C., Sun, Q., Kim, T., Wolff, G., Ratan, R., & Williams, D. (2020). Viral Vitriol: Predictors and Contagion of Online Toxicity in World of Tanks. Computers in Human Behavior, 108. doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106343


Building a Stronger CASA: Extending the Computers Are Social Actors Paradigm.

  1. Gambino, A., Fox, J., & Ratan, R. (2020). Building a Stronger CASA: Extending the Computers Are Social Actors Paradigm. Human-Machine Communication, 1(1), 5.


The Role of Plausibility in the Experience of Spatial Presence in Virtual Environments.

  1. Hofer, M., Hartmann, T., Eden, A., Ratan, R., & Hahn, L. (2020). The Role of Plausibility in the Experience of Spatial Presence in Virtual Environments. Frontiers in Virtual Reality.


Avatar Characteristics Induce Users’ Behavioral Conformity with Small-to-Medium Effect Sizes: A Meta-Analysis of the Proteus Effect.

  1. Ratan, R., Beyea, D., Li, B., & Graciano, L. (2020). Avatar Characteristics Induce Users’ Behavioral Conformity with Small-to-Medium Effect Sizes: A Meta-Analysis of the Proteus Effect. Media Psychology.


When Automobiles Are Avacars: A Self-Other-Utility Approach to Cars and Avatars.

  1. Ratan, R. (2019). When Automobiles Are Avacars: A Self-Other-Utility Approach to Cars and Avatars. International Journal of Communication, 13.


The Voice Makes the Car: Enhancing Autonomous Vehicle Perceptions and Adoption Intention through Voice Agent Gender and Style.

  1. Lee, S., Ratan, R., & Park, T., (2019). The Voice Makes the Car: Enhancing Autonomous Vehicle Perceptions and Adoption Intention through Voice Agent Gender and Style. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 3(1), 20. doi:10.3390/mti3010020


Women Keep it Real: Avatar Gender Choice in League of Legends.

  1. Ratan, R., Fordham, J. Leith, A., & Williams, D. (2019). Women Keep it Real: Avatar Gender Choice in League of Legends. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22(4).


Augmented Versus Virtual Reality in Education: An Exploratory Study Examining Science Knowledge Retention When Using Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality Mobile Applications

  1. Huang, K.T., Ball, C., Francis, J., Ratan, R., Boumis, J., & Fordham, J. (2019). Augmented Versus Virtual Reality in Education: An Exploratory Study Examining Science Knowledge Retention When Using Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality Mobile Applications. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22(2), 105-110.


The Effects of Gender Role Stereotypes in Digital Learning Games on Motivation for STEM Achievement.

  1. Hawkins, I., Ratan, R., Blair, D., & Fordham, J. (2019). The Effects of Gender Role Stereotypes in Digital Learning Games on Motivation for STEM Achievement. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 1-10.


Sentimental Avatars: Gender Identification and Vehicles of Selfhood in Popular Media From Nineteenth-Century Novels to Modern Video Games.

  1. Mendelman, L., Ratan, R. A., Fordham, J., Knittel, M., & Milik, O. (2019). Sentimental Avatars: Gender Identification and Vehicles of Selfhood in Popular Media From Nineteenth-Century Novels to Modern Video Games. Games and Culture, 1555412019879812.


Using a Computer Game to Teach Circuit Concepts.

  1. Kortemeyer, G., Anderson, D., Desrochers, A., Hackbardt, A., Hoekstra, K., Holt, A., Iftekhar A., Kabaker, T., Keller, N., Korzecke Z., Gogonis, A., Manson, Q., McNeill, G., Mookerjee D., Nguyen, S., Person, B., Stafford M., Takamoribraganca, L., Yu, Z., Zeng, F., & Ratan, R. (2019). Using a Computer Game to Teach Circuit Concepts. European Journal of Physics.


The effect of behavioral synchrony with black or white virtual agents on outgroup trust.

  1. Tamborini, R., Novotny, E., Prabhu, S., Hofer, M., Bente, G., Grall, C., Klebig, B., Hahn, L., Slaker, J., Ratan, R. (2018). The effect of behavioral synchrony with black or white virtual agents on outgroup trust. Computers in Human Behavior, 83, 176-183.


Are You What Your Avatar Eats? Health-behavior Effects of Avatar-manifested Self-concept.

  1. Sah, Y.J., Ratan, R., Tsai, H.S., Peng, W., & Sarinopoulos, I. (2016). Are You What Your Avatar Eats? Health-behavior Effects of Avatar-manifested Self-concept. Media Psychology, 20(4), 632-657. doi: 10.1080/15213269.2016.1234397.


Validating the Digital Games Motivation Scale for comparative research between countries and sexes.

  1. De Grove, F., Breuer, J., Chen, V.H.H., Quandt, T., Ratan, R., & Van Looy, J. (2016). Validating the Digital Games Motivation Scale for comparative research between countries and sexes. Communication Research Reports, 34(1), 37-47.


Do Men Advance Faster Than Women? Debunking the Gender Performance Gap in Two Massively Multiplayer Online Games.

  1. Shen, C., Ratan, R., Leavitt, A., & Cai, Y. D. (2016). Do Men Advance Faster Than Women? Debunking the Gender Performance Gap in Two Massively Multiplayer Online Games. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 21(4), 312-329. doi: 10.1111/jcc4.12159.


The (De-)evolution of Evolution Games: A Content Analysis of the Representation of Evolution Through Natural Selection in Digital Games.

  1. Leith, A., Ratan, R., & Wohn, D. Y., (2016). The (De-)evolution of Evolution Games: A Content Analysis of the Representation of Evolution Through Natural Selection in Digital Games. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 24(4), 655-664. doi 10.1007/s10956-016-9620-x


A psychophysiological examination of avatar self-relevance.

  1. Ratan, R. & Dawson, M (2016). When Mii is Me: A psychophysiological examination of avatar self-relevance. Communication Research, 43(8), 1065-1093. doi: 10.1177/0093650215570652


Leveling Up on Stereotype Threat: The role of avatar customization and avatar embodiment.

  1. Ratan, R. & Sah, Y.J. (2015). Leveling Up on Stereotype Threat: The role of avatar customization and avatar embodiment. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 367-374. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.04.010


Stand by your Man: An examination of gender disparity in League of Legends.

  1. Ratan, R., Taylor, N., Hogan, J., Kennedy, T.L.M., & Williams, D. (2015). Stand by your Man: An examination of gender disparity in League of Legends. Games and Culture, 10(5), 438-462. doi: 10.1177/1555412014567228.


Playing by the Rules: Parental Mediation of Video Game Play.

  1. Martins, N., Matthews, N. L., & Ratan, R. A. (2015). Playing by the Rules: Parental Mediation of Video Game Play. Journal of Family Issues, 38(9), 1215-1238. doi: 10.1177/0192513X15613822


The Trojan Player Typology: A cross-genre, cross-cultural, behaviorally validated scale of video game play motivations.

  1. Kahn, A. S., Shen, C., Lu, L., Ratan, R. A., Coary, S., Hou, J., Meng, J., Osborn, J. C., Williams, D. (2015). The Trojan Player Typology: A cross-genre, cross-cultural, behaviorally validated scale of video game play motivations. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 354-361. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.018


Dude, where's my Avacar? A mixed-method examination of communication in the driving context.

  1. Ratan, R. & Tsai, H. S. (2014). Dude, where's my Avacar? A mixed-method examination of communication in the driving context. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 14(c), 112-128. doi: 10.1016/j.pmcj.2014.05.011

S E L E C T E D P E E R - R E V I E W E D P R O C E E D I N G S

Audio Matters Too: How Audial Avatar Customization Enhances Visual Avatar Customization.

  1. Kao, D., Ratan, R., Mousas, C., Joshi, A., & Melcer, E. (2022). Audio Matters Too: How Audial Avatar Customization Enhances Visual Avatar Customization. Proceedings of the CHI Conference on Human Factors (CHI ’22), 1-27. doi.org/10.1145/3491102.3501848. (Honorable Mention Award recipient).


The Effects of a Self-Similar Avatar Voice in Educational Games.

  1. Kao, D., Ratan, R., Mousas, C., & Magana, A. J. (2021). The Effects of a Self-Similar Avatar Voice in Educational Games. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, (CHI PLAY), 1-28. https://doi.org/10.1145/3474665


Using Video Games to Help Visualize and Teach Microbiological Concepts: A study analyzing the learning implications of a video game in comparison to a traditional method.

  1. Gogonis, A.R., & Ratan, R. (2021, June). Using Video Games to Help Visualize and Teach Microbiological Concepts: A study analyzing the learning implications of a video game in comparison to a traditional method. In ACM International Conference on Interactive Media Experiences (pp. 264-266). https://doi.org/10.1145/3452918.3468027


VR: A Programming Game in Virtual Reality.

  1. Kao, D., Mousas, C., Magana, A. J., Harrell, D. F., Ratan, R., Melcer, E. F., Sherrick, B., Parsons, P. & Gusev, D. A. (2020). Hack. VR: A Programming Game in Virtual Reality. arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.04495.


Virtual Reality Genres: Comparing Preferences in Immersive Experiences and Games.

  1. Foxman, M., Leith, A. P., Beyea, D., Klebig, B., Chen, V. H. H., & Ratan, R. (2020, November). Virtual Reality Genres: Comparing Preferences in Immersive Experiences and Games. In Extended Abstracts of the 2020 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play (CHI PLAY '20). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY,USA, 237– 241. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1145/3383668.3419881


Gender and Genre Differences in Multiplayer Gaming Motivations.

  1. Wohn, D. Y., Ratan, R., & Cherchiglia, L. (2020). Gender and Genre Differences in Multiplayer Gaming Motivations. In Proceedings of HCI International 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark. Springer Lecture Series, Cham.


A picture is worth a gagillion words: Enhancing student skills and self-efficacy through a video-based peer review assignment.

  1. Ratan, R., Braiman, S., Makki, T.W., Ucha, C., Fordham, J. (2018). A picture is worth a gagillion words: Enhancing student skills and self-efficacy through a video-based peer review assignment. In Proceedings of the Connected Learning Summit. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


Introducing Avatarification: An experimental examination of how avatars influence student motivation.

  1. Ratan, R., Rikard, R. V., Wanek, C., McKinley, M., Johnson, L., & Sah, Y. J. (2016). Introducing Avatarification: An experimental examination of how avatars influence student motivation. In System Sciences (HICSS), 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 51-59). IEEE.


HCI and autonomous vehicles: contextual experience informs design.

  1. Meschtscherjakov, A., Tscheligi, M., Szostak, D., Krome, S., Pfleging, B., Ratan, R., Politis, I., Baltodano, S., Miller, D., & Ju, W. (2016, May). HCI and autonomous vehicles: contextual experience informs design. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 3542-3549). ACM.


Experiencing autonomous vehicles: crossing the boundaries between a drive and a ride.

  1. Meschtscherjakov, A., Tscheligi, M., Szostak, D., Ratan, R., McCall, R., Politis, I., & Krome, S. (2015, April). Experiencing autonomous vehicles: crossing the boundaries between a drive and a ride. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 2413-2416). ACM.


Ebook Uses and Class Performance In A College Course.

  1. Peng, W., Ratan, R., & Khan, L. (2015). Ebook Uses and Class Performance In A College Course. Proceedings of the 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.